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I received my PhD in sociology in 1990 from the University of Chicago, and I am now a professor at Johns Hopkins. I am interested in research on migration, family and public policy, sociology of education, social inequality, and quantitative methodology. My research tests hypotheses developed from sociological theories using advanced methodology and national longitudinal survey data. I received a Bachelor's in English at South China Normal University and a Master's in Sociology at Sun Yat-sen University, both in China. Before joining the Sociology Department at Hopkins in 1996 I was a postdoc fellow at RAND Corporation's Labor and Population Program and Assistant to Associate Professor at the Department of Sociology, University of Iowa.
My research areas include migration, family and public policy, sociology of education, social inequality, and quantitative methodology. I have examined topics such as poverty, income, consumption, wealth, and health inequality among families and academic, cognitive, social-emotional, and behavioral development of children in the United States and have recently extended this work into China. My conceptual approach is to seek the causal factors from social stratification and policy environments and the causal processes at the macro, meso, and micro levels. Research questions are answered by testing theory-derived hypotheses using advanced methodology and large-scale, nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional or panel survey data that are existing in the US and China and collected by my collaborative teams in China. Below, I describe the specific studies categorized as US studies, China studies, and a new agenda on demographic research.
Studies on US Topics
1. Immigration and Inequality in the United States
Since 1995, I have examined the impact of labor and skilled immigration to the US on topics related to welfare participation, economic mobility, work displacement, income, wealth, and health of the first generation and academic achievement, socio-emotional development, transition to adulthood of the 1.5 and 2nd generations. This line of research has been supported by several NSF grants, support from the Spenser Foundation, and a Russell Sage Foundation Residential Fellowship. My completed work was published in top journals (Demography, Social Forces, International Migration Review, Journal of Marriage and Family, Sociology of Education, Child Development) and a book on immigrants’ wealth in the context of US racial stratification published by the Russell Sage Foundation.
My current project on immigration investigates the impact of skilled immigration on the distribution of specialty fields, salary, and work status among college graduates within cohorts and between cohorts, using data from the National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG 1993 and 2003). My work estimating the impact of skilled immigration policies on salary and employment inequality appears in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2014) and Population, Space and Place (forthcoming).
My next projects along this line of research will (1) look more deeply into the specialty-field and career trajectories of immigrant vs. native college graduates and investigate how this differential contributes to rising income inequality in the emerging knowledge economy in the US, utilizing the follow-ups of the NSCG samples; (2) conceptualize and analyze how immigration complicates racial/ethnic disparities in employment trajectories and earning profiles over the stage of young adulthood across cohorts born in 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, using the matched payroll tax data and the Survey of Income and Program Participation; and (3) conceptualize and analyze the relationship between immigration and the emerging labor market institution of contingent labor, taking advantage of the matched employer data and household survey data from the Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD).
2. Family and Public Policy in the United States
Since my dissertation research I have investigated the effects of welfare policy and private support from kin networks on single mothers’ education, employment, and fertility as well as children’s economic well-being including family income, family wealth, household consumption, child-specific consumption, as well as children’s cognitive and socio-emotional development. This line of research has been funded by a number of NICHD grants and the Russell Sage Foundation Residential Fellowship. My completed work appears in top journals (American Journal of Sociology, Social Forces, Demography, Economic Journal, Social Science Research, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Population Research and Policy Review, Sociological Methods and Research).
One of my current project along this line examines how public assistance and private support affected children’s income and housing well-being before, during, and after the Great Recession (2007 - 2009), using multiple panels of the Survey and Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Another project tests the importance of parental education and expectation for children over family income in determining parental spending on individual children, using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Supplement data. Two manuscripts are in the pipeline for journal publications.
I am developing a new project to examine the effects of changing social policies, economic structure, and social and legal climates since the civil rights movement on the education, employment, and earning trajectories of men and women from ages 14-17 to ages 29-32 across three cohorts (born 1951-1954, 1962-1965, and 1980-1983). These trajectories will then serve as precursors for prime-age socioeconomic and health outcomes. This project will use data from three surveys of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS).
Studies on China Topics
Since 2010 I have extended my research on migration, sociology of education, and public policy to the Chinese society. I have laid a solid foundation for this research expansion by conducting intensive fieldwork at schools and communities in urban and rural China during my sabbatical year and an additional year funded by the Fulbright senior research grant. I have also completed and published research on the unique social stratification factor (household registration or hukou) on rural migration and educational inequality using existing census data and a national survey (Chinese Sociological Review 2012 and Comparative Education Review 2014). Based on the insights from these qualitative fieldwork and quantitative studies, I reformulated western theories to guide my research agenda in China. 1. As the PI of a US NSF grant, I have been collaborating with Renmin University of China to add a focus of “Student Migration and Educational Segregation” to the design and implementation of the China Education Panel Survey: Junior-High Cohort (CEPS:JH). This is a nationally representative survey of 10,279 7th graders and 9,208 9th graders in 438 classrooms of 112 schools. The baseline survey was completed in the 2013-14 academic year and the first follow-up survey of the baseline 7th and 9th graders is being implemented during the 2014-15 academic year. This panel survey will continue to follow the baseline 7th graders annually for 3 years until they transition to senior high. Five questionnaires - student, parent, homeroom teacher, subject teacher, and principal – provide multilevel information on learning opportunities, school processes, and multi-domain adolescent developmental outcomes as well as information on migration history and demographic characteristics of students and parents. The survey also collects student transcript data and assesses students’ cognitive ability levels and growth using standardized curriculum-free tests that we constructed to fit the China situation in collaboration with educational psychology experts. See www.chinaeducationpanelsurvey.org for detailed information on CEPS:JH.
Using the CEPS:JH baseline data, I am working on a number of papers. Motivated by the evolution of central and local policies pertaining to the compulsory education for children of rural migrants (these migrants formed the largest single migration in the human history) I first laid out the policy evolution and its intended and unintended consequences evidenced from the CEPS:JH in a UNESCO background paper (Hao and Xiao 2014). Under this decade-long policy evolution, I am currently performing a systematic examination on the changing educational opportunities, processes, and outcomes among children of rural migrants, brought along in urban schools or left behind in rural schools, in comparison with their urban and rural “native” student counterparts.
2. My second collaborative project is with Sun Yat-sen University on designing and implementing the China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS), a nationally representative survey of the Chinese urban and rural labor-force population. The 2012 baseline survey collected data on 16,253 individuals of 9,069 families in 303 communities. The Wave-2 survey in 2014 followed the Wave-1 sample and added a rotation group, yielding 23,845 individuals of 14,140 families in 404 communities. This biennial panel survey is planned to continue until 2020. Using person, family, and community questionnaires, the survey collects multilevel information on China’s labor force including education, training, work status, labor market processes, income, housing, consumption, employer-employee relationship, migration history, occupational history, workplace condition, occupational injuries and diseases, and welfare program participation. See http://css.sysu.edu.cn/Data for detailed information on CLDS.
Using the baseline CLDS data, I am currently working on several specific projects. The first is “Spatial and Career Mobility of Rural and Urban Labor Force in China,” which pays particular attention to the impact of rural-to-urban migration on occupational mobility intra- and inter-generationally (Hao and Liang 2014). The second “Intergenerational Transfers between Midlife Parents and Adult Children in China”, a pilot study funded by the Hopkins Population Center, addresses the paradox of intra-vivo transfers from before-retirement parents to adult children despite the greater economic attainment of the younger generation, and how this change in intergeneration transfers affects the health of parent and adult-child generations . The third project “China’s Welfare State in the Making and Social Inequality” examines the role of China’s welfare policies in the rising inequality. I am currently developing a 4-party collaboration - Sociology and School of Public Health at JHU and SYSU – on topics related to the structural and environmental factors linked to occupational injuries and environmental health of China’s labor-force population.
A New Agenda on Demographic Research
My NIH-funded study “Agent-based Modeling of Internal Migration” is the first step in this new research agenda. The project exploits the unique strengths of agent-based modeling (ABM) in macro-micro feedback loops, bounded rationality, and localized, spatially-distributed networks in understanding the causes, processes, and consequences of rural-to-urban migration in China. The study features empirical grounding of computational simulation, calibrating the initial conditions and model parameters as well as validating middle-step to final model outcomes using multiple censuses and nationally representative survey data. This exploratory step will lead to an extension that examines internal and international migration, the transition to low fertility, and the consequences of these demographic trends for societal inequality and development.
Selected Research Grants
Hao, Lingxin (Principle Investigator). 2014-2016. “Agent-Based Modeling of Internal Migration.” NICHD, National Institute of Health (NIH) R21. ($438,709)
Hao, Lingxin (Principle Investigator). 2013-2015. “Student Migration and Education Segregation.” National Science Foundation (NSF). ($348,666)
Hao, Lingxin (Principle Investigator). 2013-2014. “Rural Migrant Children in China’s Urban Schools.” Senior Research Grant of the Fulbright Program. ($60,000)
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 2011-2013. “Immigration, College Education, and Wage Inequality in the U.S.” National Science Foundation (NSF). ($124,000)
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 2005-2008. “Intra-Generational Mobility and Social Inequality: Does Immigration Play a Role?” National Science Foundation (NSF). ($108,000)
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 1999-2005. “Welfare Reform and Young Adult Outcomes.” NICHD, National Institute of Health (NIH) R01. ($582,843)
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 1999-2002. “Public Assistance, Private Support, and the Adaptation of Immigrants.” National Science Foundation (NSF). ($159,500)
Hao, Lingxin (Co-Principal Investigator). 2001-2006. “The Impact of Neighborhood and School Context on Children in Immigrant Families.” Spencer Foundation. ($299,300)
Hao, Lingxin (Co-Investigator). 2000-2003. “STDs, Fertility, Marriage and Demographic Projection.” National Institute of Health (NIH) R01. ($818,229)
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 1995-98. “Support Systems and Child Development in Single-Mother Families.” NICHD, National Institute of Health (NIH) R01. ($399,632)
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 1995-97. "Family Social Capital and Academic Achievement of Immigrant Children." National Science Foundation (NSF). ($82,810)
230.202 Research Methods for the Social Sciences (undergraduate)
230.317 Sociology of Immigration (undergraduate)
230.322 Quantitative Research Practicum (undergraduate)
230.605 Categorical Data Analysis (graduate)
230.615 Panel Data Analysis (graduate)
230.617 Seminar on Immigration (graduate)
230.362 Migration & Development (undergraduate; co-taught with Prof Agarwala)
Selected Articles in Referred Journals
Hao, Lingxin and Siri Warkentien. Forthcoming. “Uneven Hedging of Global Economic Risks: Are Skilled Immigrants Advantaged?” Population, Space and Place.
Hao, Lingxin, Alfred Hu, and Jamie Lo. 2014. “Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis.” Comparative Education Review 58(3):509-536.
Hao, Lingxin. 2013. “Admission-Group Salary Differentials in the United States: The Significance of Labor Market Institutional Selection of High-Skilled Workers.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 1337-1360.
Hao, Lingxin and Han Soo Woo. 2012. “Distinct Trajectories in the Transition to Adulthood: Are Children of Immigrants Advantaged?” Child Development 83(5):1623-1639.
Hao, Lingxin. 2012. “Cumulative Causation of Rural Migration and Initial Peri-Urbanization in China.” Chinese Sociological Review 44(3):6–33.
Hao, Lingxin and Eric Fong. 2011. “Linking Dichotomous Segregation with Multigroup Segregation: Weighted Segregation Ratios in Selected U.S Metropolitan Areas.” Social Science Research 40(1):379-391.
Hao, Lingxin and Julie J. H. Kim. 2009. “Immigration and American Obesity Epidemic.” International Migration Review 43(2):237-262.
Hao, Lingxin and Suet-ling Pong. 2008. “The Role of School in Upward Mobility of Disadvantaged Immigrants’ Children.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 620(1):62-89.
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz and Ginger Z. Jin. 2008. “Games Parents and Adolescents Play: Risky Behavior, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers.” Economic Journal 118:515-555.
Hao, Lingxin, Nan M. Astone and Andrew J. Cherlin. 2007. “The Effects of Stringent Child Support and Welfare Policies on Non-marital, Teenage Childbearing.” Population Research and Policy Review 26(3):235-257.
Pong, Suet-ling and Lingxin Hao. 2007. “Neighborhood and School Factors in the School Performance of Immigrants’ Children.” International Migration Review 41(1):206-241.
Hao, Lingxin and Ross L. Matsueda. 2006. “Family Dynamics through Childhood: A Sibling Model of Behavior Problems.” Social Science Research 35:500-524.
Hao, Lingxin, Nan M. Astone and Andrew J. Cherlin. 2004. “Adolescents’ School Enrollment and Employment: Effect of State Welfare Policies.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 23:697-721.
Porter, Laura, Lingxin Hao, David Bishai, David Serwadda, Maria J. Wawer, Thomas Lutalo, Ronald Gray, and The Rakai Project Team. 2004. “HIV Status and Union Dissolution in Sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Rakai, Uganda.” Demography 41(3):465-482.
Hao, Lingxin and Andrew J. Cherlin. 2004. “Welfare Reform and Teenage Pregnancy, Childbirth, and School Dropout.” Journal of Marriage and Family 66:179-194.
Hao, Lingxin. 2004. “Nested Heterogeneity and Difference in Differences.” Quality and Quantity 38:185-203.
Hao, Lingxin. 2004. “Wealth of Immigrant and Native-Born Americans.” International Migration Review 38:518-546.
Hao, Lingxin. 2003. “Public Assistance and Private Support for Immigrant Families.” Journal of Marriage and Family 65:36-51.
Hao, Lingxin and Yukio Kawano. 2001. “Immigrants’ Welfare Use and Opportunity for Coethnic Contact.” Demography 38:375-389.
Hao, Lingxin and Melissa Bonstead-Bruns. 1998. “Parent-Child Difference in Educational Expectations and Academic Achievement of Immigrant and Native Students.” Sociology of Education 71:175-198.
Hao, Lingxin and Mary C. Brinton. 1997. “Productive Activities and Support Systems of Single Mothers.” American Journal of Sociology 102(5):1305-1344.
Hao, Lingxin. 1997. “Using a Multinomial Logit Specification to Model Two Interdependent Processes with an Empirical Application.” Sociological Methods and Research 26(1):80-117.
Hao, Lingxin. 1996. “Family Structure, Private Transfers, and the Economic Well-Being of Families with Children.” Social Forces 75(1):269-292.
May 2010, SAGE Publications, Inc
April 2007, SAGE Publications, Inc
Color Lines, Country Lines: Race, Immigration, and Wealth Stratification in America
2007, Russell Sage Foundation
Kin Support, Welfare, and Out-of-Wedlock Mothers
November 1994, Garland Publishing