I received my PhD in sociology in 1990 from the University of Chicago, and I am now a professor at Johns Hopkins. My areas of research include immigration, family and public policy, social inequality, sociology of education, and quantitative methods. My research tests hypotheses developed from sociological theories using advanced methodology and national longitudinal survey data.
I have several areas of specialty. One is immigration and inequality in the United States – I am currently investigating the impact of immigration on the distribution of specialty fields and salary inequality among college graduates. Another specialty area is family and public policy in the U.S. – a current project of mine examines how public assistance and private support affected children’s income and housing well-being during the Great Recession (2007-2009) in comparison with the impacts of previous economic recessions and booms. A third area of interest is migration and inequality in China – I am currently examining the effects of China-specific social stratification factors on the complete educational trajectories of cohorts born 1944 to 1974, based on retrospective data from the Chinese General Social Survey. Another current project examines whether hukou and other social stratification factors influence school engagement and academic efficacy of college students over the course of college education.
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 2011-2013. “Immigration, College Education, and Wage Inequality in the U.S.” National Science Foundation (NSF). ($124,0000
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 2005-2008. “Intra-Generational Mobility and Social Inequality: Does Immigration Play a Role?” National Science Foundation (NSF). ($108,000.)
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 1999-2005. “Welfare Reform and Young Adult Outcomes.” NICHD, National Institute of Health (NIH). ($582,843)
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 1999-2002. “Public Assistance, Private Support, and the Adaptation of Immigrants.” National Science Foundation (NSF). ($159,500)
Hao, Lingxin (Co-Principal Investigator). 2001-2006. “The Impact of Neighborhood and School Context on Children in Immigrant Families.” Spencer Foundation. ($299,300)
Hao, Lingxin (Co-Investigator). 2000-2003. “STDs, Fertility, Marriage and Demographic Projection.” National Institute of Health (NIH). ($818,229)
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 1995-98. “Support Systems and Child Development in Single-Mother Families.” NICHD, National Institute of Health (NIH). ($399,632)
Hao, Lingxin (Principal Investigator). 1995-97. "Family Social Capital and Academic Acheivement of Immigrant Children." National Science Foundation (NSF). ($82,810)
230.202 Research Methods for the Social Sciences (undergraduate)
230.317 Sociology of Immigration (undergraduate)
230.322 Quantitative Research Practicum (undergraduate)
230.605 Categorical Data Analysis (graduate)
230.615 Panel Data Analysis (graduate)
230.617 Seminar on Immigration (graduate)
Articles in Referred Journals
Hao, Lingxin and Han Soo Woo. Forthcoming. “Distinct Trajectories in the Transition to Adulthood: Are Children of Immigrants Advantaged?” Child Development.
Hao, Lingxin and Julie J. H. Kim. 2009. “Immigration and American Obesity Epidemic.” International Migration Review 43(2):237-262.
Hao, Lingxin and Suit-ling Pong. 2008. “The Role of School in Upward Mobility of Disadvantaged Immigrants’ Children.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 620(1):62-89.
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz and Ginger Z. Jin. 2008. “Games Parents and Adolescents Play: Risky Behavior, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers.” Economic Journal 118:515-555.
Hao, Lingxin and Ross L. Matsueda. 2006. “Family Dynamics through Childhood: A Sibling Model of Behavior Problems.” Social Science Research 35:500-524.
Hao, Lingxin, Nan M. Astone and Andrew J. Cherlin. 2004. “Adolescents’ School Enrollment and Employment: Effect of State Welfare Policies.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 23:697-721.
Hao, Lingxin and Andrew J. Cherlin. 2004. “Welfare Reform and Teenage Pregnancy, Childbirth, and School Dropout.” Journal of Marriage and Family 66:179-194.
Hao, Lingxin. 2004. “Wealth of Immigrant and Native-Born Americans.” International Migration Review 38:518-546.
Hao, Lingxin. 2003. “Public Assistance and Private Support for Immigrant Families.” Journal of Marriage and Family 65:36-51.
Hao, Lingxin and Yukio Kawano. 2001. “Immigrants’ Welfare Use and Opportunity for Coethnic Contact.” Demography 38:375-389.
Hao, Lingxin and Melissa Bonstead-Bruns. 1998. “Parent-Child Difference in Educational Expectations and Academic Achievement of Immigrant and Native Students.” Sociology of Education 71:175-198.
Hao, Lingxin and Mary C. Brinton. 1997. “Productive Activities and Support Systems of Single Mothers.” American Journal of Sociology 102(5):1305-1344.
Hao, Lingxin. 1997. “Using a Multinomial Logit Specification to Model Two Interdependent Processes with an Empirical Application.” Sociological Methods and Research 26(1):80-117.
Hao, Lingxin. 1996. “Family Structure, Private Transfers, and the Economic Well-Being of Families with Children.” Social Forces 75(1):269-292.
Hao, Lingxin and Daniel Naiman. 2010. Assessing Inequality. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.
Hao, Lingxin and Daniel Q. Naiman. 2007. Quantile Regression. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.
Hao, Lingxin. 2007. Color Lines, Country Lines: Race, Immigration, and Wealth Stratification in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
1. Immigration and Inequality in the United States
Since 1995, Dr. Hao has examined the relationship between immigration and a number of phenomena, including academic achievement, socio-emotional development, transition to adulthood, public assistance and private support for individuals and families, household income and wealth, intra-generational economic mobility, as well as health inequality.
Dr. Hao is currently investigating the impact of immigration on the distribution of specialty fields and salary inequality among college graduates. The work includes the development of a classification scheme of specialty fields for formal education and occupation and inter-cohort and intra-cohort analysis using data from the National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG 1993 and 2003). The analysis estimates the impact of skilled immigration policies on salary inequality using quantile regression and quantile regression decomposition technique.
Dr. Hao’s future work will (1) look more deeply into the career trajectories of immigrant vs. native college graduates and investigate how this differential contributes to rising income inequality, utilizing the follow-ups of the NSCG samples; (2) conceptualize and analyze how immigration complicates racial/ethnic disparities in employment trajectories and earning profiles over the ages of young adulthood across cohorts born in 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, using the matched payroll tax data and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (the Gold Standard Files of the SIPP); and (3) conceptualize and analyze the relationship between immigration and the emerging labor market institution of contingent labor, taking advantage of the matched employer data and household survey data from the Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD).
2. Family and Public Policy in the United States
Since 1990 Dr. Hao has investigated the effects of welfare policy and private support from kin networks on single mothers’ education, employment, and fertility, children’s economic well-being including family income, family wealth, and childhood consumption, as well as children’s cognitive and socio-emotional development.
A current project examines how public assistance and private support affected children’s income and housing well-being during the Great Recession (2007 - 2009) in comparison with the impacts of previous economic recessions and booms, using multiple panels of the SIPP.
An upcoming project will examine the effects of changing social policies, economic structure, and social and legal climates since the civil rights movement on the education, employment, and earning trajectories of men and women from ages 14-17 to ages 29-32 across three cohorts (born 1951-1954, 1962-1965, and 1980-1983). These trajectories will also serve as precursors for prime-age socioeconomic and health outcomes. This project will use data from three surveys of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS).
3. Migration and Inequality in China
In 2010 Dr. Hao began formulating a new research agenda on migration and inequality in China, based on her first-hand fieldwork in villages in two migrant-sending provinces and at schools serving rural migrant children in a migrant-receiving city. Since the 1980s, Chinese cities have seen an upsurge in the number of rural-to-urban migrants. At the same time, the institutionalized markers for urban vs. rural status (household registration status which is known as hukou) and the privileges and social services associated with an urban hukou remain rigid, creating an emerging disadvantaged social group of rural migrants and their children in cities.
Dr. Hao is currently examining the effects of China-specific social stratification factors on the complete educational trajectories of cohorts born 1944 to 1974 based on retrospective data from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS 2008). Another current project examines whether hukou and other social stratification factors influence school engagement and academic efficacy of college students over the course of college education using the 2009-2011 Chinese Education Panel Survey of college students (CEPS).
A theoretical goal of this agenda is to test whether the Western theory about formal schooling as a major avenue of social inequality and mobility can be applied to Chinese society and in what way the Western theory can be refined and extended. To this end, Dr. Hao is preparing a grant application seeking funding for a new data collection through a national longitudinal survey of junior high school students with a focus on urban schools serving rural migrant children.